Hill, C., Dwyer, H. A., Martinez, T., Harlow, D., & Franklin, D. (2015). Floors and Flexibility: Designing a programming environment for 4th-6th grade classrooms. In Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 546-551). New York: ACM.


Type: Empirical

Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate block-based programming languages (e.g., Scratch, ScratchJr., Blockly, and LaPlaya) for elementary and middle school students to demonstrate gaps that exist in programming languages for 4th-6th grade classrooms.

Findings: 1. Students struggled with math concepts and parts of the interface 2, Distractions allowed students to delete parts without being able to recover them.

Recommendations: 1. "Look at word choice of blocks in visual programming languages" (p. 551) 2. Examine how teachers learn computational thinking and create a curriculum map for teacher education in technology and science


Participant Type: Fifteen 4th-6th grade classrooms in 5 California schools