Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate block-based programming languages (e.g., Scratch, ScratchJr., Blockly, and LaPlaya) for elementary and middle school students to demonstrate gaps that exist in programming languages for 4th-6th grade classrooms.
Findings: 1. Students struggled with math concepts and parts of the interface 2, Distractions allowed students to delete parts without being able to recover them.
Recommendations: 1. "Look at word choice of blocks in visual programming languages" (p. 551) 2. Examine how teachers learn computational thinking and create a curriculum map for teacher education in technology and science
Participant Type: Fifteen 4th-6th grade classrooms in 5 California schools