Armoni, M., & Gal-Ezer, J. (2014). Early computing education: Why? what? when? who? ACM Inroads, 5(4), 54-59.


Type: Theoretical

Purpose: The authors provide high-level arguments for what CS content should be taught and at what levels. They warn against introducing coding too early.

Findings: For each of the 4 main questions driving the article (the Why/What/When/Who) of computer education, the authors note: 1) include CS in K-12 school programs to "plant the seeds" and expose students to the foundation of the discipline (the Why); 2) go by CSTA-K12 standards approaching CS as the study of computers and algorithmic processes, principles, hardware and software designs, their applications and impact on society (the What); CS=math+science+engineering (Denning, 1989); 3) introduce a basic course in middle school as part of the standard curriculum on the nature of the discipline of CS (the When); and 4) expose everyone to the broad introductory course (the Who).

Recommendations: The authors suggest that all middle schoolers should take an introductory course, and further courses in high school should be optional. They do not believe that coding should be introduced as something easy or achievable by everyone.