Type: Review Article
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the shifts and outcomes from the literature on educational programming to inform researchers in the design of programming tools, applications and environments for learners to help in designing appropriate and effective research, interventions and assessment. (p. 603)
Findings: Programming must be seen as a communal practice than an individualistic act.
Recommendations: 1. Research needs to focus on how to get novice programmers to participate within programming communities (e.g., classrooms, after-school programs, online communities) 2. Game design is of high interest, but it tends to attract predominately males. There is a need to broaden the variety of computing activities and software applications to meet both male and female students.