Battista, M. T., & Clements, D. H. (1986). The effects of Logo and CAI problem-solving environments on problem-solving abilities and mathematics achievement. Computers in Human Behavior, 2(3), 183-193.


Type: Empirical

Purpose: To investigate the effects of Logo programming on (1) problem solving that focuses on conceptual and procedural knowledge, (2) problem solving in regards to executive-level skills, and (3) standard mathematics achievement.

Findings: "No significant differences were found on mathematics achievement or knowledge-dependent problem solving. However, significant differences were found on the test of executive-level problem solving, with the Logo group improving more than the CAI and control groups" (p. 183).