Clements, D. H., & Gullo, D. F. (1984). Effects of computer programming on young children's cognition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(6), 1051-1058.


Type: Empirical

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of computer programming (i.e., Logo and CAI) on 6-year-old children's cognitive style, metacognitive abilities, cognitive development, and ability to describe directions.

Findings: No differences were found for any measure for the CAI group. There were statistically significant pre- to posttest differences on Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in fluency p < .01 and originality p < .05 for the LOGO group. Differences between the pre- and posttest scores for error t(8)= 3.58 p < .007 and latency, t(8) =2.21, p < .05. The Logo group outperformed the CAI group on both metacognitive tasks. No differences were found between the two groups in classification and seriation.

Recommendations: Programming may affect cognitive style but no evidence suggest that is affects general cognitive development.


Sample Size: 18

Participant Type: The participants are first-grade children with an average age of 6 years 11 months. Total of 10 boys and 8 girls.

Notes: Not reported