Lewis, C. M. (2010, March). How programming environment shapes perception, learning and goals: Logo vs. Scratch. In Proceedings of the 41st ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE '10) (pp. 346--350). Milwaukee: ACM.


Type: Empirical

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to elicit student feedback around their perceptions, learning, and goals before beginning the second programming language. The major focus of this paper was on the beginning 6 days for the two treatment groups on with their respective programming environment.

Findings: 1. No statistical differences between prior computer knowledge (z=1.007, p=0.3140) 2. No statistical difference between both group and their perceived difficulty of programming commands (z=0.716, p=0.4743). 3. There was no statistical difference between the two groups with the response "Writing computer programs is easy" (z=-1.560, p=0.1189) 4. There was a statistical difference between the two groups answer the response "I am good at writing computer programs (z=2.016, p=0.0438) where the Logo group reported more positively to this question. 5. Both groups reported similar intentions to continue programming in some way after this course. 6. There were no differences detected in interpreting repeat statements from a Scratch or Logo programming language (z=-0.945, p=0.3448) 7. There was a statistically significant result that the students in the Scratch environment were able to interpret conditional expressions (z=-2.528, p=0.0115)

Recommendations: More research is needed with other programming environments such as Scratch to understand features of student experiences


Sample Size: 50

Participant Type: All students were between the ages of 10-12 and had completed 5th grade. The students in this study were characterized as academically advanced

Notes: Treatment 1 had 16 boys and 10 girls; Treatment 2 had 17 boys and 7 girls.